• Fisktjønmo, G. L. H. & Næss, M. W. (2022). Consequences of COVID-19 on the Reindeer Husbandry in Norway: a Pilot Study Among Management Staff and Herders. Human Ecology. Doi:
  • Fisktjønmo, G. L. H., Næss, M. W. & Bårdsen, B.-J. (2021). The Relative Importance of “Cooperative Context” and Kinship in Structuring Cooperative Behavior: A Comparative Study of Saami Reindeer Herders. Human Nature. 32: 677-705. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W., Fisktjønmo, G. L. H., & Bårdsen, B.-J. (2021). The Sami cooperative herding group: the siida system from past to present. Acta Borealia. 38(2):81-103. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W. (2021). Collaborative foundations of herding: The formation of cooperative groups among Tibetan pastoralists. Journal of Arid Environments 186:104407. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W. (2020). Cultural Group Selection and the Evolution of Reindeer Herding in Norway. Human Ecology 48(3):279-291. Doi:
  • Kelman, I. & Næss, M. W. (2019). Climate Change and Migration for Scandinavian Saami: An Overview of Possible Impacts. Climate. 7(47):14.
  • Juan, D., Thomas, M. G., Bårdsen, B.-J., Mace, R. & Næss, M. W. (2019). Comparison of social complexity in two independent pastoralist societies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 73(1):4.
  • Thomas, M. G., Bårdsen, B.-J. Næss, M. W. (2018). The narrow gap between norms and cooperative behaviour in a reindeer herding community. Royal Society Open Science 5(2).
  • Bårdsen, B.-J., Næss, M. W., Singh, N. J. & Åhman, B. (2017). The pursuit of population collapses – long term dynamics of semi-domestic reindeer in Sweden. Human Ecology 45(2):161-175. 10.1007/s10745-016-9880-3.
  • Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J. (2016). Why do Tibetan pastoralists hunt? Land Use Policy 54:116-128.
  • Thomas M.G., Næss M.W, Bårdsen, B-J. and Mace, R. (2016): Smaller Saami Herding Groups Cooperate More in a Public Goods Experiment. Human Ecology 44(5):633–642.
  • Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J. (2015). Market economy vs. risk management: how do nomadic pastoralists respond to increasing meat prices? Human Ecology 43(3):425-438.
  • Thomas, M., Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J. & Mace, R. (2015). Saami reindeer herders cooperate with social group members and genetic kin. Behavioral Ecology 26(6):1495-1501.
  • Bårdsen, B.-J., Næss, M. W., Tveraa, T., Fauchald, P. & Langeland, K. (2014). Risk sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments. Ecology and Evolution 4(7):1030–1038.
  • Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J. (2013). Why Herd Size Matters – Mitigating the Effects of Livestock Crashes. PLoS ONE 8(8): e70161.
  • Næss, M. W. (2013). Climate Change, Risk Management and the End of Nomadic Pastoralism. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 20(2):123-133.
  • Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J. & Tveraa, T. (2012). Wealth dependent and interdependent strategies in the Saami reindeer husbandry, Norway. Evolution and Human Behavior 33(6): 696-707.
  • Næss, M. W. (2012). Cooperative pastoral production – reconceptualizing the relationship between pastoral labor and production. American Anthropologist 114(2):309-321.
  • Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J., Pedersen, E. and Tveraaa, T. (2011). Pastoral herding strategies and governmental management objectives: predation compensation as a risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry. Human Ecology 39(4):489-508.
  • Næss, M. W. (2010). Contradictory Evidence as a Guide for Future Research – Investigating the Relationship between Pastoral Labour and Production. Nomadic Peoples 14(1):51-71. .
  • Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J., Fauchald, P., & Tveraa, T. (2010). Cooperative pastoral production – the importance of kinship. Evolution and Human Behavior 31(4):246-258.
  • Næss, M. W., and Bårdsen, B.-J. (2010). Environmental stochasticity and long-term livestock viability – herd-accumulation as a risk reducing strategy. Human Ecology 38(1):3-17.
  • Næss, M. W., Fauchald, P., and Tveraa, T. (2009). Scale dependency and the “marginal” value of labor. Human Ecology 37(2):193-211.

Book Chapters

  • Horstkotte, T., Heikkinen, H. I, Næss, M. W., Landauer, M., Forbes, B. C., Risvoll, C. and Sarkki S. (2022). Chapter 7: Implications for resource governance of norms and knowledge in customary reindeer herding units. In Horstskotte, T., Holand, Ø., Kumpula, J. & Moen, J. (eds.) Reindeer Husbandry and Global Environmental Change: Pastoralism in Fennoscandia, pp. 133-149. Routledge:
  • Næss, M. W. (2017). Reindeer herding in a changing world—a comparative analysis. In Kelman, I. (ed.) Arcticness and change: Power and voice from the north, UCL Press, London, U.K, pp. 59-75.
  • Bird, D., McLeman, R., Gísladóttir, G., Kelman, I., Næss, M. W., Pétursdóttir, G. and Jóhannesdóttir, G. (2016). Climate change and settlement level impacts. In Taylor, A. and Carson, D. B., Ensign, P. C., Huskey, L. Rasmussen, O. R. and Saxinger, G. (eds.), Settlements on the Edge: Remote Human Settlements in Developed Nations, pp. 293-319. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K.
  • Næss, M. W. (2012). Tibetan Nomads Facing an Uncertain Future: Impacts of Climate Change on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, in Lamadrid, A & Kelman, I. (eds.), Climate Change Modeling for Local Adaptation in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, Volume 11, pp. 99-122. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


  • Næss, M. W., and Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen. (2021). Wealth of Nomads – an Exploratory Analysis of Livestock Inequality in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry. SocArXiv. 11. Nov. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W., G. L. H Fisktjønmo, and B.-J Bårdsen. (2020). The Saami cooperative herding group: the siida system from past to present. SocArXiv, 19 June 2020. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W. (2020). Collaborative foundations of herding: the formation of cooperative groups among Tibetan pastoralists. SocArXiv, 14 May 2020. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W. (2019). From hunter-gatherers to nomadic pastoralists: forager bands do not tell the whole story of the evolution of human cooperation. SocArXiv, 29. Nov. 2019. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W. (2019). Cultural group selection and the evolution of reindeer herding in Norway. SocArXiv, 11. Nov. 2019. Doi:
  • Næss, M. W. (2018). Adapting to a Market Economy: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Costs of Cashmere Wool Production in the Aru Basin, Tibet. SocArXiv. Doi:

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